Academic Ethics

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Plagiarism and citation

A basic aspect of the academic research process is proper citation of the sources you use for your paper. Failure to do so can lead to charges of plagiarism, defined in the UNI Academic Ethics/Discipline policy as "the process of stealing or passing off as one's own the ideas or words of another, or presenting as one's own an idea or product which is derived from an existing source."

Writing and style manuals explain how to cite properly the various types of print and electronic sources you use for a project. There are several major style manuals. One often used in social science research, including business, is published by the American Psychological Association.

Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
UNI Reference Desk CBT BF76.7 .P83 2001
Book available for checkout the Rod Library Reference Desk. Explains how to cite various types of print publications ranging from books to journal articles to U.S. government publications in print and online.

APA Style
This American Psychological Association web site excerpts details from the manual above on how to cite electronic media. This explains citation principles and gives several examples.

Citation differences: print articles v. online articles

A number of journal articles are available to you in print format at Rod Library and also through various online databases such as ABI/INFORM and Business & Company Resource Center. A specific journal article in print is a different entity from the same article in an online database. As a result, there are differences in how they are cited.

For example, Richard Morfopoulos and William Roth wrote an *article on job analysis that was published in 1996 in a journal called Business Horizons. The full text of the article is available through online databases such as Business & Company Resource center. Rod Library also subscribes to the print version of Business Horizons, and it is shelved on the bottom floor of Rod Library in Bound Periodicals.

If you use the print version, APA guidelines call for citing it as follows (indent after first line):

Morfopoulos, R., & Roth, W. (1996). Job analysis and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Business Horizons, 39 (6), 68-72.

If you use the version from Business & Company Resource Center, APA calls for citing it as follows:

Morfopoulos, R., & Roth, W. (1996). Job analysis and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Business Horizons, 39 (6), 68-72. Retrieved January 11, 2001 from the Business & Company Resource Center database.

APA has issued new details on how to cite electronic sources as described in the following guide.

APA style guide to electronic references
UNI Ref Desk CBT BF76.78 .A63 2007

Citation differences: other publications in print and online

Other types of publications may be available in print and online. The same principles should be applied in indicating details of the online version used for an assignment. See guides such as the Publication Manual for details.

February 13, 2009 SL